We used multiple lists to obtain a comprehensive listing of tribes and urban Indian organizations (greater than 600).  More than half of the tribes and urban Indian organizations identified had functioning, official websites.  The Constitutions of tribes were also collected. Federally recognized tribes tended to promote:

  • HHS Head Start meals & snacks
  • USDA National School Lunch Program
  • USDA Senior Meal Program
  • USDA Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations
  • Indian Health Services

Generally, Constitutions of American Indian tribes express tribal authority to  provide for the health and general welfare of their members.  This review enabled us to identify specific tribal policies and programs with the greatest potential to improve access to healthy, affordable foods within tribal communities.  In particular, we located tribes successfully using community gardens and intergenerational approaches to connect Native youth with their tribe’s rich agricultural history.  Integrating tribal examples in Tools for Healthy Tribes and in our discussions with tribal leaders has helped provide culturally relevant and feasible examples of community change around healthy eating and active living.